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Toxicology is the scientific study of harmful effects of chemical, biological and physical agents in biological systems that establish the extent of damage in living organisms. It includes observing symptoms, mechanisms, detection and treatments of toxic substances, in certain relation to the poisoning of humans. It consists of environmental agents and chemical compounds, as well as Pharmaceutical Compounds that are manufactured for medical use by humans. These substances may produce toxic effects in living organisms including disturbance in growth patterns, discomfort, disease and death. Toxicology is the qualitative and quantitative study of the adverse effects of chemicals and other materials on living organisms. The dose of the substance is an important factor in toxicology, as it has a relationship with the effects on the individual. Factors that influence toxicity include the dose, the route of exposure, shape and structure of the chemical, the species, individual human factors and environment. Toxicology and Pharmacology are both studies that involve in assessing the properties of chemicals and their actions on the body, but differ significantly in other areas. Pharmacology focuses on the therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical substances and how they can be used most effectively for medical purpose. Whereas, toxicology is closely related to the adverse effects that can occur in living organisms that come into contact with chemical compounds. Toxicologists are also concerned with determining the risk of certain substances with risk assessment tools.
Chemical risk assessment methodologies facilitate both scientific and data-informed decision making and also is progressively expected to provide more precise predictions of actual risk. Risk assessment includes the characterization of the uncertainties inherent in the process of inferring risk. Toxicology data helps to determine the risk of exposure to certain chemicals. The practices of risk assessment are used to assess the related health risks to provide a scientific basis for regulatory standards development and risk management decision making for human health protection. The presence of chemicals in our environment is a subject of deep interest owing to the many potential adverse health effects to humans following exposure to these chemicals. The validity of an estimation of risk derived from a risk assessment depends greatly on the quality and accuracy of data. Where data do not exist or are contradictory, regulatory agencies are required to rely on default values, uncertainty factors, and modeling approaches to fill in the blanks. These defaults and extrapolations introduce uncertainty into the risk estimates. New methodologies and testing methods could fill key data gaps, clarify data inconsistencies, or otherwise reduce uncertainty. If applied appropriately, these approaches have the potential to improve the accuracy and scientific credibility of regulatory decision making. Human health risk assessment is the process of investigating information to determine whether an environmental hazard might cause harm to exposed persons. The risk-assessment process incorporates many disciplines of Toxicology.
Analytical toxicology is the detection, identification, and measurement of foreign compounds in biological and other specimens. Analytical methods are available for a wide range of compounds like chemicals, pesticides, drugs and natural toxins. Analytical toxicology is used in the diagnosis, management, prognosis, and prevention of poisoning. Analytical toxicology laboratories may be involved in activities such as the assessment of exposure following chemical incidents, therapeutic drug monitoring, monitoring the drugs of abuse and forensic analyses. They may also be involved in research like determining the pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic properties. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry are generally used today in analytical toxicology. While planning the development of an analytical toxicology service there are a number of considerations. These comprise the pattern of poisoning and, therefore, the specific substances for which analyses will be required, the existing infrastructure, the availability of ongoing technical support, spare parts and reagents from suppliers, the availability of a team of trained staff and the capacity to train new staff and provide continuing professional development.
Genotoxicity describes the property of chemical compounds that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. Genotoxic chemicals exert their adverse effect through interaction with genetic material (DNA) of cells. Genotoxicity testing of new chemical entities is an integral part of the drug development process and is a regulatory necessity prior to the approval of new drugs. To assay for genotoxic molecules, researchers assay for DNA damage in cells exposed to the toxic substrates. Techniques like in vitro and in vivo Toxicology Tests, Ames Assay and Comet Assay have been developed to determine the chemicals' potential to cause DNA damage that may lead to cancer. Genotoxicity tests are designed to detect drugs which can cause genetic damage directly or indirectly by various mechanisms of action. Compounds which are identified as genotoxic in these tests have the ability to be human carcinogens and ultimately may induce cancer and heritable defects. Genotoxicity testing of new chemical entities is an integral part and is a regulatory requirement prior to the approval of new drugs, in Drug Development process. Late stage failures can be reduced by identifying genotoxicity at an early stage in Drug Discovery rather than during regulatory assessment.
Forensic toxicology uses toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, clinical chemistry and pharmacology to aid medical or legal investigation of drug use, poisoning and death. It deals with the investigation of toxic substances, poisonous products and environmental chemicals. The primary concern of Forensic Toxicology is to obtain and interpret the results. Toxicological analysis can be done to various kinds of samples. Forensic toxicology involves not only determining the presence of Toxic substance in the post-mortem body, but how the body’s natural processes affect the substance, including chemical change and dilution. Forensic toxicologists perform scientific tests on tissue samples and bodily fluids to identify any chemicals or drugs present in the body. The choice of method for testing is highly depends on the material on which the testing is performed and what kind of substance one expects to find. Analytical methods used in forensic toxicology should be carefully tested by performing a validation of the method to ensure definite results at all times. Forensic toxicologists also work on cases involving environmental contamination, to determine the impact of chemical spills on living organisms. Investigators rely on the forensic toxicologist to make reliable conclusions about the impact a specific amount of a specific substance would have on a specific individual. Currently, forensic toxicology is the study of drugs, alcohol and poisons, including their chemical composition, identification and preparations. It comprises knowledge about the absorption, distribution and elimination process of such substances in the body, as well as the manner in which the body responds to their presence and the factors which define Drug Safety and efficacy.
Food safety is a discipline which describes preparation, handling and storage of food in ways that avoid foodborne illness. This involves a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food safety includes the origins of food including the practices relating to food labelling, food additives, pesticide residues and food hygiene as well as policies on Biotechnology and food. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as help as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are sophisticated standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of sufficient safe water, which is usually a critical item. Environmental toxicology is a field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of various physical, chemical and biological agents on living organisms. Harmful effects of biological and chemical agents can include toxicants from pesticides, pollutants, fertilizers and insecticides all of which can impact an organism and its population through shifts in species diversity and abundance. Living organisms can be exposed to Toxicants at various stages of their life cycle. The amount of toxicity can vary depending on where the organism is found within its food web.
Application of procedures and principles of toxicology to prevent adverse health effects from drug candidates. To estimate the safety of potential drug candidates in the drug development process is the primary objective of toxicology studies. This can be done by using relevant animal models and validated procedures. The ultimate goal is to translate the animal model responses into an understanding of the risk for human subjects. To this end, the toxicologist must be conscious of the international guidelines for safety evaluation, as well as traditional and nontraditional toxicology models. Toxicology profile consists of safety Pharmacology, acute and sub chronic toxicology, chronic toxicology, ADME studies, genetic toxicology, reproductive and developmental toxicology and an evaluation of carcinogenic potential. The development of novel drugs requires non-clinical safety studies to be performed on candidate drug compounds. Such studies typically assess general toxicology safety pharmacology and Genetic Toxicity test batteries. These studies notify development of candidate drugs from the “discovery phase” through clinical development to regulatory submission and registration. Less importance was placed on the evaluation of safety issues for projects while still in the drug design phase. Therefore, this led to a number of major failures of candidate drugs in early development due to toxicological issues. In response to this costly attrition, many pharmaceutical companies have now dedicated in “Discovery-phase Toxicology” or “Discovery Safety” to detect likely hazards and to take steps to design out or significantly reduce unwanted properties at an earlier stage, with the ultimate aim of improving the probability of success in non-clinical and clinical drug development.
Experimental toxicology results in more number of drug reactions which we come across during practical session. The animals which are used in experimental purpose are given at different doses to know the drugs bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and their functions on various temperatures. The in vivo and in vitro are the two major studies which help in practical study.
Medical toxicologists are involved in the comprehensive high level care of people and patients who come into contact with drugs, substances or other agents that pose a threat to their well-being. Some of Medical and Clinical Toxicology encounters are Unintentional and intentional overdoses, Exposure to industrial chemical products and environmental hazards, Drug abuse management, Diagnosis and management of exposures and Independent medical examinations, assessing injury or disability resulting from toxic exposures.
We live in the most modernized and industrialized world where we get exposed to the number of the chemicals and toxic substances which cause severe damage to the body and the environment. In this part the industrial workers are widely exposed to the chemicals which cause severe damage to the body. The industrial toxicology deals with the safety of workers and the various steps to be taken to prevent the bioaccumulation of the heavy metals.
Toxicology testing, also known as safety assessment, or toxicity testing, is conducted to determine the degree to which a substance can damage a living or non-living organisms. Toxicity tests examine finished products such as pesticides, medications, cosmetics, food additives such as artificial sweeteners, packing materials, and air freshener, or their chemical ingredients. The substances are applied to the skin or eyes; injected intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals.
Pharmacology is the scientific study of drug action on biological systems. It is the study of the interactions between a living organism and drugs. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. Pharmacological studies range from the effects of chemical agents upon subcellular mechanisms, to those that deal with the potential hazards of pesticides and herbicides, to those that focus on the treatment of major diseases by drug therapy. It involves examining the interactions between chemical substances and living systems, with a view to determining the properties of drugs and drug actions, including the drug molecules and drug receptors interactions and how these interactions elicit an effect. The study of chemicals requires good knowledge of the biological system affected. With the knowledge of biochemistry and cell biology increasing, the field of pharmacology has also changed significantly. It is now possible to design chemicals that act on specific cellular signaling or metabolic pathways by affecting sites directly on cell-surface receptors, through molecular analysis of receptors.
Pharmacology deals with the basis, therapeutics uses of drugs, physiological action and properties of action. Applied pharmacology helps to measure the data obtained from the clinical studies and can correlate it with the clinical processes. Applied pharmacology is the study of how drugs affect body. Drugs can be used to both maintain a healthy lifestyle and treat or cure disease. It also provides explanation for different drugs having connected with the pharmacological action. It gives clarifications about drug interactions and the action of various drugs on the many organs in the body when they are in diseased state with side effects contradictions. Applied pharmacology makes it possible not only to explain to the doctor the action of drugs in the human body, but also in evaluating the efficacy of drugs in a particular disease condition.
Pharmacological Testing includes both Pharmacologic stress testing and nuclear stress test. Whereas the Pharmacologic stress testing is the set up after activity testing, is an analytic system in which cardiovascular anxiety affected by pharmacologic operators is shown in patients with diminished useful limit or in patients who can't work out. And Pharmacological nuclear stress test is a demonstrative test used to assess blood stream to the heart. Amid the test, a little measure of radioactive tracer is infused into a vein. A unique camera, called a gamma camera, identifies the radiation discharged by the tracer to create PC pictures of the heart.
Cardiovascular Pharmacology describes drugs that are used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The content emphasizes the biophysical, biochemical, and cellular basis for drug therapy. Cardiovascular Pharmacology understanding of not only general pharmacologic principles and mechanisms of action of cardiovascular drugs, but more importantly, with an understanding of the rationale for drug use.
Medicine Development includes many new medications or chemicals which may influence the strength of people are required by law to be tried on creatures. The safety tests provide data for arranging human trials; speak to a little extent of the advancement procedure for another medication. The tests can't anticipate the greater part of the responses a human may have to a given substance, more extensive inquiries concerning impacts on the heart, liver, lungs or skin are replied through creature concentrates so that its relative danger is known. Intense poisonous quality tests, where a solitary, high dosage of a substance is given to creatures, are performed right off the bat being developed.