Chen-Yuan Chiu is an assistant professor in the Institute of Food Safety and Health, National Taiwan University and a principle investigator in the functional evaluation and safety assessment of food lab. His main research focuses on toxicology, the relationship between diabetes and other chronic diseases, and safety assessment and efficacy of health food products and food additives.
Statement of the Problem: Recent population studies provide clues that poor outcomes in breast cancer (BC) patients are observed across diabetes mellitus. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be as a causative factor of diabetic complications, and AGEs as a risk factor attributed to BC progression, malignancy and intervention are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the role of Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major member of AGEs, in tumor malignancy of BC and the putative mechanism in in vitro and in vivo models. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In in vitro study, MDA-MB-231 human BC cells were treated with CML at various doses for 48 h. In in vivo study, tumor formation was designed in the xenograft NOD/SCID mouse with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model. The cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. The stemness characteristics of cells was evaluated by sarcosphere formation assay. Protein expressions of culture cells and tissues from animals and patients were analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Findings: CML significantly promoted cell proliferation and also induced sarcosphere formation in MDA-MB-231 cells with upregulation of ALDH1A1 and Nanog gene expressions, biomarkers of cancer stem cells. CML also induced protein expressions of stemness-related signals (ALDH1A1, CD44, and p-glycoprotein) through activation of RAGE/SIRT6 signaling pathway. Moreover, tumor tissues from STZ-induced diabetic NOD/SCID mice with xenotransplantation of MDA-MB-231 cells and BC patients with diabetes were also exhibited activated protein expressions of AGEs, CML, ALDH1A1, CD44, RAGE and SIRT6 compared to non-diabetic mice and patients with BC. Conclusion & Significance: CML induced tumor malignancy by upregulation of stemness characteristics-related signals via activating RAGE/SIRT6 signaling pathway, and hopes to provide possible remedy targets and effective adjuvant therapies of breast cancer under diabetic condition in the future.
An Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Toxicology, a member of Senate of University of Maiduguri and a Consultant Pharmacist in Teaching Hospital of the University. Had been the Head of Department of Ethno-Pharmacy and Drug Development and the Head of Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, and presently the Sub-Dean of the Faculty of Pharmacy in the University of Maiduguri. Had more than 17 years of experience in teaching students of pharmacy, medicine, nursing, physiotherapy and health records, during which 4 research grants were earned. Had more than 40 academic publications in both local and international journals. Had attended numerous local and international conferences and workshops, the most recent being the 5th TReND Summer School on Neuro-science and Drosophila Neuro-genetics (August – September 2015).
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that affects about 6% of the population aged over 65 and increases in incidence with age. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant in the family Ranunculaceae. In some ethno-medical practices of West Africa, it is used as a protective and curative remedy for several disorders including AD. The following work therefore seek to investigate the scientific validity of its therapeutic effect and safety in AD. Thirty albino rats of both sexes (male and female) were randomly divided into three groups of 10 each. The first group was administered with 100 mg/kg of Aluminium Chloride solution, while the second group was administered with both Aluminium Chloride solution (100 mg/kg) and processed oil of Nigella sativa (75 ml/kg) and the third group was treated with distilled water. Treatment was continued for 27 days. At the end, all the groups were subjected to behavioral studies to assess memory, anxiety, muscle strength and other neuro-behavioral parameters. Serum biochemical analysis was conducted to assess liver and kidney functions in all the groups. The oil of Nigella sativa has a statistically significant (p<0.05) protective effect against loss of memory and impaired muscle strength in Aluminium chloride induced model of Alzheimer disease. The oil contains some pharmaco-potent constituents which is effective in the management of Alzheimer disease and is safe for human consumption