Shikha Agnihotry has been working at Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow of ICMR since 2013. She has been involved in training biomedical research scholars in the field of bioinformatics and has also assisted as Research Assistant under an ICMR-funded project.
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport with a worldwide frequency of ~1 in 30000. Wilson’s disease is characterized by chronic liver and neurological disease and also reported in kidney. Hepatic copper levels vary among normal individuals and WD patients depending upon on dietary copper intake and bioavailability, as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined that abnormal copper accumulation in human heptocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Copper chloride (CuCl2) caused dose dependent cell viability reduction of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line which was measured through MTT assay. We used different concentration of CuCl2 in their log doses but maximum cell viability reduction was recorded at 15 µg/ml. It also induces cell cycle arrest and DNA damage due to intracellular ROS generation. CuCl2 induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and leads to apoptotic cell death. It causes the up-regulation of WD stress marker genes ATP7B and Cyp1A1, Cyp1A2 at transcription levels. The similar response of ATP7B and Cyp1A1, Cyp1A2 proteins was recorded at translation levels. Heavy dietary intake of CuCl2 induces mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential analyzed through JC-1 staining. It further increases Bax/Bcl2 ratio and promotes the release of cytochrome C, finally leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Up-regulation of APAF1 in CuCl2 treated cells supports the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death. The results support the involvement of ER and mitochondria in ROS mediated CuCl2 toxicity. Therefore, the heavy dietary intake of CuCl2 in food products may be deleterious to users.
Yumiko Nitta has completed her PhD from Hiroshima University. She started her occupation as the Research Assistance at Research Institute of Radiation Biology and Medicine in Hiroshima University, where she examined effects of radiations on mammalian genome. Then, she obtained the position of Associate Professor at Suzugamine Women’s College, where she analyzed data of human health monitoring. Presently she is a Professor at the Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Science of Hiroshima Shudo University, where she concerns about nutrition epidemiology.
The Hiroshima-Oyster has bearded the Setouchi local cuisine culture. Its commercial share expanded to all over Japan after the great earthquake of eastern Japan in 2011. In order to evaluate the sanitary environment around Hiroshima Bay area, we collected wild oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mud from gulf of Hiroshima, Kurashiki and Kagoshima, and measured their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in their meat, shell and the mud. The mud at the gulf of Hiroshima contained Zn and Cd with amounts of 188.0 and 0.53 mg/kg mg/kg, respectively. Concentration ratios of Zn in the oysters were higher as the concentrations of it in mud were lower. The concentration ratio of Zn in the shell/whole oyster (meat plus shell) was constant among the three groups with the value of 0.019. This finding made us available to estimate the Zn concentration ratio of the meat from that of the shell. The formula is b=c • a, where b is concentration ratio in meat, c is constant (46.4) and a concentration ratio in shell. Concentration of Cd in the shell/whole oyster was constant among the three groups (0.26~0.42). For the monitoring of the cultivation environment of Hiroshima Bay area, the seawater temperature, salinity concentration and plankton amount were recorded weekly, while the content of moisture, protein, total lipid, minerals, Zn was measured monthly for mature and immature oysters. Measuring the concentration of Cd in shells and mud is very informative to estimate the amounts of metals we consume through seafood, vegetables and poultry, as the shell has been recycled for fertilizer of vegetables or food of poultry in Japan.