Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 14th World Congress on Toxicology and Pharmacology Singapore.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Maria Walczak

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Poland

Keynote: Profiling of lipid mediators and fatty acids in metastatic breast cancer in mice
Toxicology Congress 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Maria Walczak photo
Biography:

Maria Walczak graduated at the Faculty of Pharmacy Medical Academy in Krakow (Poland) and PhD degree got at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College (UJ CM), next habilitation thesis in pharmacokinetics in 2014. Since 2001 she worked at the Department of Pharmacokinetics and Physical Pharmacy UJ CM as a lecturer, since 2010 at the Jagiellonian Centre for Experimental Therapeutics (JCET) as a manager of the Laboratory of Analytics and Pharmacokinetics, and since 2015 as a head of Chair and Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy UJ CM. Her scientific work refers to pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic profiling, metabolite screening, targeted lipidomics and proteomics and ligands binding to blood proteins. She is involved in bioanalysis of novel compounds and biomarkers related to cancer metastasis using LC/MS/MS, GC/MS/MS and CE techniques. She is a specialist in the clinical pharmacy issues.                     

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in women worldwide and a leading cause of cancer death. Due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer, the development of screening method is urgently needed. Targeted lipidomic analysis has indicated the potential of using bioactive lipids and fatty acids as breast cancer biomarkers. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Lipid profiling in plasma was analyzed using GC/MS/MS system based on targeted lipidomic platform with the assessment of lung metastases progression in mice model (4T1) of breast cancer. To characterize lipid profile in plasma in the early and late stage of metastasis we focus on bioactive lipids and saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids pathway. Findings: Based on primary tumor growth and lung metastases, 1-2 weeks period after 4T1 cancer cells inoculation was defined as early metastatic stage, while 3-4 weeks period after 4T1 cancer cells inoculation as late metastatic stage. The early and late phase of metastasis was characterized by a different pattern of lipids profile in plasma. The main changes in plasma lipids profile were observed at the late phase of metastasis evidenced by the reduction of the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. Decreased plasma concentration of free fatty acids have been found to be associated with tumor progression in mice. Conclusion & Significance: The early and late phase of metastasis in murine 4T1 metastatic breast cancer was associated with plasma lipidome remodeling and activation of lipid signalling mediators coincided with metastasis progression. Identification of lipid targets that play a role in breast cancer invasion may advance our understanding of the rapid progression of cancer and may lead to the development of new biomarkers for the disease.

  • Food Safety and Environmental Toxicology | Forensic Toxicology | Applied Pharmacology | Environmental Pharmacology | Toxicology Applications | Toxicology and Risk Assessment
Speaker
Biography:

Regina Mary R has her passion in educating and empowering the rural young women. She has her expertise in the field of development of bioactive compounds from microorganism for the biomedical application. Her contribution towards preparation of surface modification and bioactive compound conjugated nanoparticle for the treatment of pathogens from water and food system with a molecular mechanistic explanation. She has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration both in education institutions. She also has her unique contribution in the field of infection in gastrointestinal track and respiratory track due to the foodborne pathogens and its treatment by probiotics for health benefits of young women.

Abstract:

Prodigiosin (PG) is a natural red colored compound, widely used in pharmacological and biological applications. This investigation focused on nutraceutical and food functionalization potential of natural colorant PG was compared synthetic food colorant erythrosine (ER). The antioxidant potential of PG and ER was examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging method. The bactericidal efficiency of PG and ER were analyzed against six foodborne pathogens. The food shelf life extant ability of PG and ER was analyzed using meat extract powder (MEP) as a model food material. The PG (70.19 g/kg) was biosynthesized from Serratia marcescens by solid state fermentation. The scavenging activity of PG was calculated to be 99% and 99.9% were DPPH and ABTS, respectively. ER shows DPPH, 81%; ABTS, 85.9% of radical scavenging was achieved. The scavenging ability of PG was confirmed through UV-visible, EPR, fluorescence spectrum and cyclic voltammetry analyses. The bactericidal efficiency of PG against the selected foodborne pathogens exhibited significant inhibition on growth than the synthetic colorant and the shelf life of the food was extended in the presence of PG containing food model. Hence, the PG may be used as food colorant and thus significantly reduce the addition of synthetic colorant in food processing industry. This study will bring an innovative approach on food additive for safe and sustainable food process.

Speaker
Biography:

Brian Waters received his Masters of Science degree in Criminalistics from California State University, Los Angeles, USA. After working as a Criminalist for the County of Los Angeles, Department of Coroner/Medical Examiner for almost eight years, he accepted a position as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Forensic Medicine at Fukuoka University in Japan. His specialty is postmortem forensic toxicology, and he has published academic papers on fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the analysis of novel psychoactive compounds, preparation methods for postmortem samples, and the analysis of volatile hydrocarbons in blood.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Suvorexant (Belsomra®) is a relatively new insomnia medication that has been available in the US and Japan since 2014. It is a dual orexin receptor antagonist that promotes sleep by inhibiting the binding of orexin neurons to the OX1R and OX2R receptors. In this report, we describe the detection and quantitation of suvorexant from the postmortem specimens of three recent autopsy cases handled by our department.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Suvorexant was identified by fast GC-MS during routine screening (Fig. 1) and quantitated by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method. Quantitation was achieved by positive electrospray ionization in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Monitored transitions were m/z 451 > 186 for quantitation and m/z 451 > 104 for qualification. Diazepam-d5 was used as an internal standard.

Findings: Suvorexant was detected and quantitated in the body fluids and tissues of three autopsy cases. The specimens included cardiac blood, peripheral blood, urine, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, lung, muscle, fat, and cerebrospinal fluid. Tissue distribution across the three cases will be presented and discussed.

Conclusion & Significance: The use of suvorexant as an insomnia medication has recently increased around the world. To our knowledge this is the first instance of suvorexant being quantitated from actual autopsy cases. It is possible the presence of this medication in clinical and forensic samples has been missed due to its high boiling point and thus late elution in gas chromatography. We were able to detect suvorexant in three cases by using fast GC-MS, which significantly reduced its retention time. It is likely that this compound will be encountered more often by the forensic and clinical toxicology communities going forward.

Speaker
Biography:

Vandana Sanjeev Panda has completed her PhD in Pharmacology from Mumbai University, India. Her research for the last few years has changed focus from pure pharmacology to plant drugs and now functional foods where her lab is active in pharmacological evaluation of plant phyto-constituents, bio-molecules and endogenous substances for a variety of biological activities, their mechanistic studies and development of models for these activities. Her major work has been in the area of gastric and hepato-protection, anti-diabetic and cardio-protective activity, and studies on the metabolic syndrome. She has 40 plus research papers with 850 citations in high impact factor journals, a number of research awards and scholarships, and industrial projects to her credit. She sits on the Editorial Board of a few journals and is a Reviewer for many reputed journals.

Abstract:

Nutrients and gastrointestinal peptide hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), GLP-1 and peptide YY are involved in the short term regulation of food intake, which interact with long term regulators such as insulin, leptin and ghrelin to maintain energy homeostasis. Plant foods have been proven to be effective in modifying release of these short term satiety signals which regulate the balance between food intake and energy expenditure to maintain body weight. Spinacia oleracea (spinach) is a green leafy vegetable rich in antioxidant phyto-constituents such as flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids and vitamins. The present study evaluates the appetite suppressing effect of a flavonoid rich extract of the spinach leaf (SOE) in rats. Rats were administered SOE (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o) and fluoxetine (6 mg/kg i.p) as a pre-meal for 14 days. Food intake and weight gain was observed daily during the treatment period. Serum levels of the short term satiety signals CCK and glucose were measured on the 7th and 14th days at different time points after start of meal to study the satiety inducing effect of SOE. SOE and fluoxetine treated rats showed a significant reduction in food intake and weight gain when compared with the normal control rats. On the 7th day of treatment, peak CCK levels were reached in 30 min after start of meal in fluoxetine treated rats and in 60 min in the remaining rats. On the 14th day, CCK peaking was observed in 30 min after starting meal in the fluoxetine as well as SOE 400 mg/kg treated rats. Peak glucose levels in all treatment groups were obtained in 60 min after start of feeding on both days of the study. It may be concluded that SOE exhibited a promising appetite suppressing effect by inducing a quicker than normal release of CCK, thus eliciting an early onset of satiety in rats.

  • Special Session
Speaker
Biography:

Swamy K B is presently working as Professor and HOD of Clinical Anatomy, Lincoln University, Malaysia. He has been awarded PhD by Andhra University, India and obtained his Master’s degree (MS in Clinical Anatomy) from Andhra Medical College, India, DMCh (Maternal & Child Health) from IGNOU, New Delhi and his Medical degree (MBBS) in 1976. He has expertise in human genetics, reproductive & developmental anatomy and also in herbal medicine. He has been the Genetic Counselor for many institutions, with prestigious grants (FRGS, URGS) from Malaysian Government. He has been the former Founder Anatomist, Professor and Head of the Department for many medical schools in India as well as in Malaysia. He is an International Editorial Board Member for many reputed journals like Anatomical Society of India (ASI). Recently he has been unanimously elected as an Executive Board Member for ASI and Editor for many journals like Novel Techniques in Nutrition and Food Science, Annals of Anatomy & Physiology, Journal Anatomical Society of India (JASI), etc., and also Manuscript Reviewer for journals like Food & Chemical Toxicology (Elsevier), Novel Techniques in Nutrition and Food Science, etc.

Abstract:

Objectives: 1. Know how the cord care is provided to the Gadaba and Konda Dora newborns. 2. Assess the incidence of home-deliveries. 3.  Identify the different categories of care providers. 4.  Find out the prevailing components of  the traditional cord care practices.  Introduction: Health of a mother and newborn depends not only on the health care received during pregnancy and Intra partum but also during postpartum period. Settings & Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on Gadaba and Konda Dora Tribal populations at random from 95 tribal villages in Vizianagaram district, Andhra Pradesh. Materials & methods: Data were collected from 300 lactating women from each Tribe who were Aged between 15-45 years through in-depth and face to face interview method. Results: Nearly one fifth (18.0%-20.0%) of the present Tribal women reported that the Umbilical cord was cut after the delivery of the placenta, and majority of the respondents were not sure/unaware of the time of removing the umbilical cord. Most of the Gadaba (80.3%) and Konda Dora (82.3%) Tribes used the new shaving blade to cut the umbilical cord. After cutting the Umbilical cord, new thread was tied to the stump to arrest the blood flow in 80.3% of Gadaba and 83.0% of Konda Dora newborns. About 96.0% of Gadaba and 95.3% of Konda Dora newborns were applied with variety of oils or ash of vegetative origins and also used different powders to the wound for healing. Conclusion: Some of the present study Tribal women have adopted certain unhygienic Practices in cutting the umbilical cord with unsterilized unsafe instruments, tying the wound with available material and also applying the cord stump with different substances which are considered as unhealthy practices.

  • Young Research Forum
Speaker
Biography:

Lebsir Dalila is currently pursuing her PhD at the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety and completed her Master’s degree in Experimental Pharmacology at the University of Jijel, Algeria.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Thyroid cancer (TC) is the major health consequence of nuclear accident. To prevent TC incidence, a single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to block thyroid radioiodine uptake. In situation of prolonged exposure like Fukushima disaster, many doses of KI may be necessary. Whereas single dose of KI transiently blocks thyroid function the Wolff-Chaikoff effect, studies about the effects of repeated KI administration are scarce. Thyroid hormones (THs) play an obligatory role in many fundamental processes underlying brain development and maturation, the repeated KI administration could modify (THs) level which may impact body functioning.

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of repeated administration of KI 1 mg/kg in adult rat especially thyroid function and then in more sensitive model the fetus with a particular focus on their central nervous system (CNS) development.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Adult male rats were subjected to either KI or saline solution over 8 days. Clinical biochemistry, pituitary and thyroid hormones level, anti-thyroid antibodies level and thyroid genes expression were analyzed 30 days after stopping the treatment. The male progeny were subjected to KI indirectly through the treatment of their mothers since (GD9) over 8 days and 30 days after the weaning, we evaluated the same parameters as for the adults, we also assessed behavior and CNS genes expression.

Findings: We didn’t report any significant effect of repeated KI intake in adult. On the other hand we obtained a significant decrease of TSH and FT4 in treated progeny, also the treatment significantly altered CNS genes expression and motor behavior of progeny.

Conclusion & Significance: The data of adult may contribute to the ongoing developments of KI guidelines and marketing authorization. Contrariwise toxic effect of repeated KI intake on immature brain requires more research.

Speaker
Biography:

Ajeet Kumar Srivastav has his research interest in the study of molecular mechanism involved in skin disease, phototoxicity/photogenotoxicity and molecular mechanism involved in skin disease by photosensitive drugs, cosmetics preservatives, hair dyes and PAHs under ambient UV-R/Sunlight exposure. Presently, he is working as a Senior Research Fellow at Photobiology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India.

Abstract:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as environmental pollutants because of their intrinsic chemical stability, high resistance and toxic property worldwide. 1,2:3,4 dibenzanthracene (DBA) is a PAH, produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, petroleum discharge. It gets adsorbed on atmospheric particles, mixed into soils, used in tattoo ink and remains for the longest time in the ecosystem. DBA showed strong absorption maxima (λmax) in UV-B (290-320 nm) with low absorption under UV-A (320-400 nm). DBA generates the significant amount of ROS such as O2.-, .OH via type 1 mechanism. In silico study of DBA showed the interaction with aryl hydrocarbon receptor. DBA generates ROS photochemically and intracellularly which was confirmed by DCF/DHE fluorescence intensity while genotoxicity was assessed through comet assay, Hoechst staining, micronuclei formation. The generation of CPDs and 6-4 photoproduct formation, confirm the photo-genotoxic potential of DBA. Mitotracker/DAPI, Mitotracker/DHE, Mitotracker/DCF and JC-1 result showed the significant increase in mitochondrial permeability pore complex formation which leads to the release of cytochrome-c in cytosol showed strong evidence for apoptotic cell death by photoirradiation DBA. Cell cycle result showed G2/M phase arrest during cell division. DBA significantly showed over expression of Bax, Parp, Cyt-c, Bak, Caspase 3, Apaf-1, Cathepsin-B, Lamp-1, AhR, tBid, Calpain-7, γH2Ax, Keap-1, Caspase-12, Caspase-9 and lower expression of Bcl-2, Bid, Hmox and procaspase-3 protein expressions and up-regulation of Apaf-1, Cyt-C, Bax, Caspase-3, Calpain-7, Cathepsin-B, Nrf-2, Keap-1, AhR, Cdk-2, Cdk-4, Cycd1, Cycd2, Cycd3, Cdk6, Cyp1a2 and down regulation of Hmox, Bcl-2 genes. The exact mechanism behind DBA phototoxicity was involvement of ROS generation via type-1 mechanism, reduction of an antioxidant level and activation of the apoptotic pathway through mitochondria, nucleus as well as endoplasmic reticulum followed by AhR strongly promotes apoptotic cell death. The study suggests that after the DBA exposure, sunlight/UV-B exposure may avoid preventing from its harmful effects.

Biography:

Abstract:

Background: Poisoning is a significant health problem in developing countries and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is very essential to know the pattern of poisoning since it is inconsistent in diverse geographical locations. Therefore facilitating rapid clinical diagnosis and ensuring appropriate treatment is crucial to reduce the consequences of poisoning.

Aim & Objective: To assess the pattern of poisoning and their outcomes.

Methodology: It is a prospective, observational study conducted in a tertiary care multispecialty hospital for a period of six months. The patient’s data was acquired from patient’s case sheets, interviewing patients and their caretakers (if possible) and were documented in a suitably designed data collection form.

Statistical analysis: Chi square test (X2 test) (p<0.001).

Results: 131 patients (111 poisoning, 20 envenomation) were incorporated in our study, where majority of the patients belong to the age group 21-30 years (X2 test p<0.001). Deliberate self-harm through intentional poisoning was pragmatic in 91 patients followed by 18 accidental and 2 occupational. The frequently utilized poisoning agents were drugs n=49 (47.9%) tailed by other agents n=19 (17.11%) which encompassed nail polish, kerosene, paint thinner, camphor, etc., rodenticides 12 (10.81), insecticides 11 (37.93%), detergents 10 (9.0%), pesticides 6 (5.40%), herbicides 2 (1.80%) and acids 2 (1.80%). The outcomes of the victims were correlated using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Poison Severity Score (PSS) depicted recuperation in 85 patients took after by discharge against medical advice 17, death 4 and lost to follow up 4.

Conclusion: The trends in deliberate self-harm by poisonous agents is dynamic. Medications were the most well-known methods of poisoning. Educational programs with more accentuation on preventive measures and toxic substance data focuses are important to make mindfulness among the overall population.

Biography:

Abstract:

Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO), more than three million poisoning cases with 251,881 deaths occur annually of which 99% of fatal poisonings occur in developing countries. In India, due to the absence of research and systematic reporting of poisoning incidents, the exact incidence cannot be quantified. In light of that inconspicuous insight with respect to the nature of products, circumstances the outcomes are not clearly identified.

Aim & Objectives: Clinical profile of patients with acute poisoning admitted to emergency wards of a tertiary care hospital.

Methodology: Our study was conducted for a period of 6 months i.e., Nov 2016 to April 2017 in a tertiary care hospital. This prospective observational study included a total of 131 acute poisoning victims. The demographic data such as age, sex, marital status, level of education, occupation, socioeconomic status (Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic scale) and location of intake of poison, time of intake and route of exposure, associated comorbid conditions and outcome of poisoning were recorded and documented.

Statistical Analysis: Chi square test (X2 test) (p<0.001).

Results: Among 131 patients dominant part of the patients fall under the age group of 21-30 years where male (n=64) and female (n=67). Deliberate self-harm was significantly found in literates (n=53) (X2 test p<0.001), married population (n=64) (X2 test p<0.001), homemakers (n=36) trailed by job holders (n=34), abiding in urban territories (n=133) belonging to upper middle class sector (n=50). Patients with a history of comorbidities were n=35. The frequent route of intake of poisonous agents is oral. Analgesics and anti-pyretic were commonly abused.

Conclusion: Poisoning with varying socio-demographic and socio-economical pattern is a growing health problem in developing countries. Intentional poisoning is very common among younger age group, thereby indicating a necessity for effective counseling and medical management strategies.

Biography:

Mahalakshmi K is currently pursuing her MBBS from Saveetha Medical College, SIMATS under the mentorship of Dr. Sankaran, Department of Anatomy, SIMATS in India. Her research is on the localization connexin 36 and calcitonin gene related peptide as a determinant of neuropathic pain in the trigeminal ganglion.

Abstract:

Purpose: The trigeminal ganglion consists of pseudounipolar neurons surrounded by satellite glial cells and processes innervating craniofacial region. The gap junctions are transmembrane proteins formed between the cell membranes of adjacent cells and calcitonin gene related peptide are neuropeptides secreted by sensory neurons.

Materials and Methods: In present study the immunohistochemical localization for connexin 36 gap junctions and CGRP was done in the trigeminal ganglion of male Wistar rats. Localization was done in six rats in each group after standardization of dilution ratio for each antibody.

Result: The result showed connexin 36 was present between the satellite glial cells and between satellite glial cell and neuron. The localization was also found in the schwann cells surrounding axon. CGRP was localized densely in the cytoplasm of small neurons. The large neurons showed fine less densely stained localization in the cytoplasm.

Discussion: The excited neuron can influence the surrounding satellite glial cells and neurons through gap junctions and by paracrine actions altering its environment leading to pathological role in inducing painful conditions like migraine. By blocking this gap junction and neuropeptide using antagonist, migraine can be managed.

Speaker
Biography:

Bryan Joel Devaraj is currently pursuing his MBBS from Saveetha Medical College, SIMATS. His area of research is drug development under the mentorship of Dr. Sankaran, Department of Anatomy, SIMATS in India.

Abstract:

PURPOSE:

The trigeminal ganglion consists of pseudounipolar neurons surrounded by satellite glial cells and processes innervating craniofacial region. The gap junctions are transmembrane proteins formed between the cell membranes of adjacent cells and calcitonin gene related peptide are neuropeptides secreted by sensory neurons. Glial cells which surround the pseudo unipolar neurons directly modulate neuronal function and activity by changing the ionic concentrations in and around the neurons.

METHODOLOGY:

The rats were divided into two groups: Group 1(n=6): control rats, Group 2(n=6): nitro

glycerine treated rats 6mg/kg. Then immunohistochemical localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein in trigeminal ganglion was done in both groups after standardizing dilution ratio.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION:

GFAP was present in satellite glial cells surrounding the neuron and in the nerve fibers in control rats. In migraine model rats there was increased intensity of GFAP in the satellite glila cells and nerve fibers indicating its role in allodynia. Upregulation of GFAP in painful conditions like migraine and neuralgic conditions may be an important factor in activating surrounding neurons by releasing interleukins and TNF from the satellite glial cells. The antagonist to GFAP can block the inflammatory cascade and can be used in the treatment of migraine.

Biography:

Siva VK is currently pursuing MBBS from Saveetha Medical College, SIMATS.

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional anaemia is one of major the contributory factor in high maternal mortality and morbidity in most of the countries. Iron deficiency is the principle cause for nutritional anaemia. Objective: To compare the efficacy of oral iron therapy with intravenous iron therapy in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia during pregnancy. Methodology: This comparative study was undertaken at a tertiary care teaching hospital among one hundred and ten pregnant anaemic patients whose baseline hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were recorded prior to treatment. The patients were divided into two groups; group A (n=58) received intravenous iron-sucrose and group B (n=52) received oral iron therapy. The patients were followed up for further investigations and side effects. Results: Out of 110 patients, 50% had mild anaemia (10.9-10 gm%), 34.5% patients had moderate anaemia (7-9.9 gm%) and 15.5% (6-6.9 gm%) patients had severe anaemia. Group A showed statistically significant rise in haemoglobin regardless the severity. Conclusion: Intravenous iron-sucrose administration increased haemoglobin level and serum ferritin levels more rapidly, without any serious adverse effect in comparison with oral ferrous sulphate in women with iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy

Speaker
Biography:

Anish S Bharatwaj is currently pursuing MBBS from Saveetha Medical College. He is immensely passionate about the field of Neurology and Oncology. He is extremely interested in the art of research and has done two researches in Social and preventive medicine and Pathology.

Abstract:

Introduction:  The saga of finding strains of virus that can selectively destroy tumor cells started in the 1960s and is still ongoing. The approval of Talimogene Laharparpvec by the FDA for treatment of Malignant Melanoma is proof of our advancements. It is now proposed that viruses carry out oncolysis by 4 ways, of which intracellular replication and expression of cytotoxic products of replication are most significant. Other mechanisms include induction of anti tumor response and transgene expression causing cell apoptosis. Of the viruses studied, Herpes Virus (Strains HSV1716  and G207) and Adenovirus (ONYX-015 and ICOVIR) are most noteworthy.

Methodology: The analysis took place in Saveetha Medical College between July and December 2016. Data regarding clinical trials were obtained from Clinical Trials Database, United States of America and US Food and Drug Administration drug approval information. Descriptive statistics was done and SPSS 2017 was used to find the inference.

Result: Eleven trials have been carried out with seven viruses so far; Herpes Virus, Adenovirus, Reovirus, Newcastle Virus, Parvovirus, Polio virus and morbili virus. Of clinical importance are the strains of Herpes virus, Reovirus and Newcastle Disease Virus. The strain HSV1716 showed radiological evidence of tumor reduction in phase II and G207 showed no adverse effects with 5 disease free stable patients. Both strains are administered intra tumor. The Reovirus Dearing strain in phase II showed 3 stable patients and Phase III is underway. Newcastle disease virus Ulster Strain showed increased Progression Free Survival Period and Overall survival.  

Conclusion: Many more trials and Meta Analysis are required to provide evidence based results. Moreover some studies indicate that addition of other factors like angiogenesis inhibitors will aid in virotherapy. Some studies support the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy following virotherapy, while others claim equal or inferior efficacy. In the coming years, however, Virotherapy is expected to cause a paradigm shift in Oncology.

Biography:

Taarika Balaji is currently pursuing her MBBS from Saveetha Medical College, SIMATS. Her research is on the anti-stress effects of Fluoxetine in the hippocampus of the male Wistar rats in cold restraint stress model under the mentorship of Dr. Sankaran, Department of Anatomy, SIMATS in India.

Abstract:

Introduction

Stress has been known to be a potential modulator of learning and memory. Long term stress can lead to depression. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor group of drug used in the treatment of depression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Fluoxetine on cold restraint induced stress in the hippocampus of Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods

A total of 18 male wistar albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (n=6). Group 1 was the control group which were kept in normal laboratory conditions. Group 2 was the negative control group which were given cold restraint stress for period of four weeks. Group 3 was the experimental group, where the animals were pretreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of one week followed by cold restraint stress for 30 minutes and cotreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of four weeks. The whole study was done for a period of five weeks followed by behavioural studies and subsequently sacrificed with removal of brain for various histological, Immunohistochemical (IHC), neurochemical and antioxidant analysis. The values were expressed as Mean±SEM. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant using Prism Graphpad software version 6.01.

Results and conclusion:

The results show there was significant improvement in the Morris water maze test after treatment with fluoxetine in Group 2 (fig1). Similar results were also noted in the levels of neurotransmitters and antioxidant levels in brain and also in the number of cells counted in IHC and histological studies by H&E when Group 3 was compared with Group 2. The treatment reversed the damage in Group 2 which was comparable with the control group. The results revealed that administration of fluoxetine 10 mg/kg given orally has a potential antistressor effect by improving the neurogenic and neuroprotective effect on the cold restraint stress induced hippocampal damage.

  • Poster Presentations

Session Introduction

Shikha Agnihotry

Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, India

Title: Roles of ATP7B gene to maintain the copper-transporting ATPase in a HepG2 cell line against excess copper toxicity
Speaker
Biography:

Shikha Agnihotry has been working at Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow of ICMR since 2013. She has been involved in training biomedical research scholars in the field of bioinformatics and has also assisted as Research Assistant under an ICMR-funded project.

Abstract:

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport with a worldwide frequency of ~1 in 30000. Wilson’s disease is characterized by chronic liver and neurological disease and also reported in kidney. Hepatic copper levels vary among normal individuals and WD patients depending upon on dietary copper intake and bioavailability, as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined that abnormal copper accumulation in human heptocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Copper chloride (CuCl2) caused dose dependent cell viability reduction of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line which was measured through MTT assay. We used different concentration of CuCl2 in their log doses but maximum cell viability reduction was recorded at 15 µg/ml. It also induces cell cycle arrest and DNA damage due to intracellular ROS generation. CuCl2 induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and leads to apoptotic cell death. It causes the up-regulation of WD stress marker genes ATP7B and Cyp1A1, Cyp1A2 at transcription levels. The similar response of ATP7B and Cyp1A1, Cyp1A2 proteins was recorded at translation levels. Heavy dietary intake of CuCl2 induces mitochondria and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential analyzed through JC-1 staining. It further increases Bax/Bcl2 ratio and promotes the release of cytochrome C, finally leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Up-regulation of APAF1 in CuCl2 treated cells supports the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic cell death. The results support the involvement of ER and mitochondria in ROS mediated CuCl2 toxicity. Therefore, the heavy dietary intake of CuCl2 in food products may be deleterious to users.

Biography:

Yumiko Nitta has completed her PhD from Hiroshima University. She started her occupation as the Research Assistance at Research Institute of Radiation Biology and Medicine in Hiroshima University, where she examined effects of radiations on mammalian genome. Then, she obtained the position of Associate Professor at Suzugamine Women’s College, where she analyzed data of human health monitoring. Presently she is a Professor at the Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Science of Hiroshima Shudo University, where she concerns about nutrition epidemiology.

Abstract:

The Hiroshima-Oyster has bearded the Setouchi local cuisine culture. Its commercial share expanded to all over Japan after the great earthquake of eastern Japan in 2011. In order to evaluate the sanitary environment around Hiroshima Bay area, we collected wild oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mud from gulf of Hiroshima, Kurashiki and Kagoshima, and measured their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in their meat, shell and the mud. The mud at the gulf of Hiroshima contained Zn and Cd with amounts of 188.0 and 0.53 mg/kg mg/kg, respectively. Concentration ratios of Zn in the oysters were higher as the concentrations of it in mud were lower. The concentration ratio of Zn in the shell/whole oyster (meat plus shell) was constant among the three groups with the value of 0.019. This finding made us available to estimate the Zn concentration ratio of the meat from that of the shell. The formula is b=c • a, where b is concentration ratio in meat, c is constant (46.4) and a concentration ratio in shell. Concentration of Cd in the shell/whole oyster was constant among the three groups (0.26~0.42). For the monitoring of the cultivation environment of Hiroshima Bay area, the seawater temperature, salinity concentration and plankton amount were recorded weekly, while the content of moisture, protein, total lipid, minerals, Zn was measured monthly for mature and immature oysters. Measuring the concentration of Cd in shells and mud is very informative to estimate the amounts of metals we consume through seafood, vegetables and poultry, as the shell has been recycled for fertilizer of vegetables or food of poultry in Japan.

Florin Muselin

Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Romania

Title: The antioxidant effect of resveratrol in cisplatin induced oxidative stress
Speaker
Biography:

Florin Muselin has his expertise in heavy metals reproductive toxicology, oxidative stress and medicinal and poisonous plants. He is an Associate Professor at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine from BUASMV Timisoaara, Romania.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Cisplatin is one of the most used cytostatic with a broad antitumor spectrum. The uses of different cytostatic are followed by release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the adverse effect of the chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine if the resveratrol administration can reduce the cisplatin induced oxidative stress.

Methodology: The study was conducted on 24 Wistar rats divided in four groups: C - the control group receiving 1 ml of physiological  saline I.P., CR - control blank group receiving 20 mg/kg resveratrol I.P., CP - receiving cisplatin 10 mg/kg I.P. and CP+R receiving combination of 10 mg/kg cisplatin and 20 mg/kg resveratrol I.P. At the end of experiment were analyzed the biomarkers of oxidative stress enzymes: Glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GSH-r), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA).

Findings: Administration of cisplatin was followed by significant decrease of GSH (-29.44%, p<0.01), GSH-r (-31.88%, p<0.0001), CAT (-52.28%, p<0.0001) and increase of GSH-Px (+31.25%, p<0.001), SOD (+11.27%, p>0.05) and (+24.05%, p<0.05) comparative to control group. In case of cisplatin combined with resveratrol administration, the majority of biomarker enzymes of oxidative stress presented not significant (p>0.05) differences comparative to control group (GSH: -4.04%, GSH-r: -1.96%, GSH-px: +1.97%, SOD: -1.92%, MDA: +10.31%), exception in case of CAT which remains significantly lower than control (-21.62%, p<0.01).

Conclusion: Analyzing the dynamic of enzymes biomarkers of oxidative stress we can say that administration of resveratrol can reduce the ROS formation and has a good effect as antioxidant in case of cisplatin administration.

Speaker
Biography:

Eugenia Dumitrescu has her expertise in the veterinary field, reproductive toxicology, heavy metals, phyto-therapy and oxidative stress in animals. She is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine from Banat’s University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Romania.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: It is known that vegetal extracts can generate positive responses in stages of several patho-processes. The anti-oxidant; protection against DNA damage and cancer activities of Coriandrum sativum were intensely studied in the last decade. Our research envisaged the polyphenolic compounds’ structure and the anti-proliferative biologic activity of C. sativum 10 % alcoholic extract against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines.

Methodology: The C. sativum extract was obtained respecting the Romanian Pharmacopoeia 10th edition, the plant being lyophilized (with Ilshin Kryptonstraat 11, 6718WR EBE lyophilisator to -55 oC, 5 mTorr pressure and 24 hours lyophilisation time). The polyphenols were determined by LC-MS and the in vitro evaluation effects by the MTT proliferation test, using HCT116 (colorectal carcinoma) and MCF7 (mammary adenocarcinoma). The cells were seed as: 2×104 (MCF7) and 1×104 (HCT) in 96 well plates. The lyophilized extracts were suspended in specific culture medium being obtained a 300 mg/mL C. sativum stock solution. From this, different test concentrations were prepared by dilution (300, 200, 100 and respectively 50 mcg/mL).

Result & Conclusion: As a following, after 24 hours from the exposure, using HCT-116 and MCF-7 cell lines it was observed that the cellular proliferation reduced, this being correlated to dose and the alterations of cell morphology to the groups studied; to great extract doses, apoptotic and necrotic alterations were observed, both for HCT and MCF cells; the IC50, representing concentration to which a marker substance is reducing the tissues viability with 50% after a fixed time exposure period wasn’t observed for the cell lines used in this test; the chromatographic analysis of C. sativum alcoholic extract evidenced the presence of the polyphenolic compounds, the greatest concentrations were ascertained for epicatechin (77.083 mcg/mL) and rutin (30.279 mcg/mL), substances with known hard anti-oxidant proprieties.

Alexandru Octavian Doma

Banat’s University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Romania

Title: The evaluation of hypoglycemic effects of some plants extract on induced diabetes in mice
Speaker
Biography:

Alexandru O. Doma is PhD student in Faculty of Veterinary Medicine from Banats University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine ”King Michael I of Romania” from Timisoara. He has built his experience in research, evaluation, teaching during the PhD period. He is secretary of Romanian Society for Trace Elements in Medicine.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is characterized by a relative or absolute lack of insulin, resulting in hyperglycaemia, being one of the most frequent diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the hypoglycemic effect of some plats extract on Streptozotocin induced diabetes in mice. Methodology: The study was conducted on 35 BALB/c mice divided in five groups: C- control group receiving distillated water, DC – diabetic control receiving distillated water, E1 – diabetic mice receiving 10% Arctium lappa extract, E2 - diabetic mice receiving 1% Betula pendula liophilizate extract, E3 - diabetic mice receiving 5% Althaea officinalis extract. The diabetes was induced by i.p. administration of 200 mg/kg bw Streptozotocin is single dose, mice with glycaemia over 150 mg/dl were considered diabetic and those with over 200 mg/dl were considered to have severe diabetes. Findings: In diabetic rats we observed a significantly (p<0.05) increase of body weight comparative to control and also we observed a significant (p<0.05) increase of water consumption in diabetic rats in the firs 24h, followed by a decrease of these possible due to the change in taste especially in E2 group. Administration of plants extract in groups E1, E2 and E3, decreased significantly (p<0.05) the glycaemia comparative to DC group reaching the values to C group. The decrease of glycaemia in groups that received plants extract was graduated started after 24h after exposure until 120h after exposure: E1/DC 72h: -27.52%; E1/DC 120h: -41.02%; E2/DC 72h: -32.58%; E2.DC 120h: -43.07%; E3/DC 72h: -34.83%; E3/DC 120h: -37.43%. Conclusions: Administration of studied plants extract proven to have a good hypoglycaemic effect and could be recommended for the control of glycaemia.

Camelia Tulcan

Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Timisoara, Romania

Title: Evaluation of oxidative stress effect for in vitro maturated cow oocytes through gene expression quantification
Speaker
Biography:

Camelia Tulcan is the Assistant Professor at Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Timisoara and Coordinator of Antioxidant Research Lab-Horia Cernescu Research Unit. She has expertise in oxidative stress evaluation in different physiological or pathological condition and was involved in management team of research infrastructure project and in implementation of quality management systems.

Abstract:

In the current assisted reproductive practice in cows the IVF technique is used in increasing proportion. However, the used methods are not always standardized and are needed to be improved. The first challenge in optimization of IVF techniques is obtaining mature oocytes by growing them in culture media and by this to preserve their high fertilization quality. A crucial factor in improving IVF results is the prevention of oocytes from in vitro cultivation stress effects. In the presented study the beneficial effect of antioxidant supplementation in maturation culture media of cow oocytes was evaluated by apoptotic genes expression quantification. The oocytes were cultivated for 24 hours on conventional (control variant), supplemented with rosmarinic acid (RA variant) and ascorbic acid (C variant), maturation media. The oocytes were classified in three quality classes by morphological observation from which the total RNA was isolated. Quantitative PCR technique was used for quantification of BAX and BCL2 apoptotic genes expression. Results of qPCR were interpreted by Δ (ΔCt) method. The ratio BCL2/BAX was considered as an indicator of maturated oocytes homeostasis. Antioxidants culture media supplementation resulted in a better expansion of cumulus cells. The level of expression of the BAX gene has an increasing trend in all COC’s, inversely proportional to oocyte quality, indicating the overcoming of cell adaptation process for the inferior class. Regarding the BCL2 gene, significantly higher expression levels can be observed in class I oocytes supplemented with antioxidants. The level of maintenance of cell homeostasis, as reflected by the ratio of BAX/BCL-2, with a value above 7, indicates that apoptotic processes have been installed in all class III oocytes. Supplementation with antioxidants exerts a beneficial effect on inferior class cells, which have a high stress level, to some extent assuring their protection, indicating the effectiveness of administering this supplement.

Speaker
Biography:

Zixiong Zhou has received his BS degree in 2014 from Southwest Minzu University of China and obtained MS degree from Chonbuk National University, South Korea in 2017. Currently he is pursuing his Doctoral degree at Chonbuk National University. He is focusing on various research topics including effects of cigarette smoke components to liver disease and Acetaminophen induced hepato-toxicology.

Abstract:

It has been well known that Cigarette Smoke (CS) is a leading cause of various diseases worldwide. Recently, cumulative evidence has suggested that exposure to CS detrimentally affects the pathogenesis of several chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), more severe stage of NAFLD, is characterized by steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation. Relationship between CS exposure and progression of NASH has not been fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of CS extract (CSE) or CS condensate (CSC) on the in vitro NASH model using mouse primary hepatocytes (HPs) treated with palmitic acid (PA) or PA plus LPS. Increased hepatocellular damage was observed in PA-treated HPs with CSC or CSE treatment, but increased triglyceride level was only observed in PA-treated HPs with high concentration CSC. Also, expression levels of NASH-related genes such as inflammation, oxidative stress and lipogenesis were significantly increased by treatment of CS. In order to more clearly demonstrate the effects of CSE or CSC, we used trans-well co-culture system of HPs and Kupffer cells (KCs) under the same condition of above mentioned. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress-related gene were markedly increased in co-cultured KCs with treatment of CSE or CSC. Furthermore, treatment of CSC or CSE significantly augmented the expression levels of KC activation markers including CD14 and CD68. Interestingly, each type of CS could not affect HPs apoptosis when only HPs were cultured; however, CS increased PA-induced HPs apoptosis when HPs were co-cultured with KCs. Overall, our current findings indicate that in vitro treatment of CSE or CSC differentially contributes to the severity of NASH by modulating NASH-related hepatocellular lipotoxicity and inflammation. These effects might be caused by KCs activation, subsequently inducing HPs apoptosis.

Speaker
Biography:

Jing Zhao is currently a Doctoral student of Veterinary Pathology in Chonbuk National University of South Korea and has received her Master’s degree of Veterinary Medicine in China in July 2015. Her experiments focus on the liver diseases and damages in mice, including Acetaminophen-induced liver injury and Concanavalin A-induced liver injury.

Abstract:

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose induces inflammation and oxidative stress that can lead to severe liver injury. Cigarette smoking is considered to be a crucial modifiable risk factor for disease and death worldwide. Our previous data revealed that cigarette 3R4F aggravated APAP-induced liver injury in a dose-dependent manner. This study aimed to investigate the effects of commercial cigarette A on the progression of APAP-induced acute liver injury. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette A (300, 600 μg/L) or standard cigarette 3R4F (600 μg/L) or fresh air for 2 hours once daily and 5 days per week. After 4 weeks, mice were intra-peritoneally injected with PBS or APAP (500 mg/kg). Eight hours later the mice were euthanized and blood and tissues were collected for analysis. The results showed that cigarette smoke exposure significantly increased APAP-induced liver injury by increasing serum ALT and AST levels, exacerbated hepatic pathological damages with inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocellular apoptosis and accompanied by up-regulated inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β. Cigarette smoke could increase the expressions of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 and 1A2 which could metabolize a large number of compounds in liver and lead to the down-regulation of antioxidant such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in APAP treated mice. Furthermore, cigarette smoke exposure obviously increased the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signal induced by APAP. Mice exposed to commercial cigarette A had no significant difference between those exposed to standard cigarette 3R4F after APAP injection. Overall, these findings suggested that cigarette smoke exposure could exacerbate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and possible mechanism might be associated with the activation of JNK signal pathway.

Speaker
Biography:

Yuki Mukai is currently a Masters student at University of Tsukuba, Japan. She belongs to Department of Legal Medicine and interested in drug abuse that is social problem in the world, especially in synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones. She has recently developed a screening kit for detecting synthetic cathinones.

Abstract:

In recent years, abuse of illicit drug has been a very important problem. Significant amount of unknown illicit substances are sized by law enforcement and boarder protection agencies. Synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones have a psychoactive effect on our bodies. The identification of these drugs is important not only for the proof of the crime, but also human health. Generally, to identify the illicit drugs, we use the techniques such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). These instruments, however, are not always convenient owing to their high cost of running, the need for trained personnel, lengthy analysis times, etc. Screening kits for detecting drugs, therefore, are required at the scene of crime and the development of them is desired. In this study, we have designed the screening kit for cathinones to provide easily an indication of the presence or absence of cathinones in a test sample. This kit consists of a glass tube enclosed reagents which react with them (named “cathinone detector tube”). This kit utilizes the reaction of cathinons with neocuproine and copper(II) to give a colored copper(I)-neocuproine complex. The presumptive color test method for the detection of synthetic cathinones by Morgan Philip, et al. is applied to the development of this screening kit. They describe that nepcuproine color test displays good selectivity to cathinone analogs. To improve operativity and preservation of our kit, three aqueous solutions were coated on silica gel particle and then the powders have been enclosed in a single glass tube. The reagent in the tube colored orange from light blue in the presence of cathinones. In consequence, this kit had very high sensitivity for detecting cathinones. The limit of detection of α-PVP, for example, was 5 µg (absolute amount, 100 µL of 50 µg/mL solution).

Speaker
Biography:

Deependra Prasad Sarraf has his expertise in in vivo studies of natural herbs and medicinal foods. He is also involved in undergraduate and postgraduate medical students’ teaching, thesis guidance and mentoring.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Honey is the worlds’ oldest known wound dressing. Its wound healing properties is not fully established till today. Concerns about antibiotic resistance and a renewed interest in natural remedies, have prompted resurgence in the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of honey. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing in burns, infected wounds and open wounds. None of these reports have documented the effect of honey on healing of socket after tooth extraction. Therefore, the present experimental study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An experimental study was conducted in six New Zealand white rabbits. Extraction of first premolar tooth on both sides of lower jaw was done under anesthesia produced by ketamine and xylazine followed by application of honey on one socket (test group) and normal saline (control group) in the opposite socket. The intervention was continued for two more days. On 7th day, biopsy was taken from the extraction site and histo-pathological examination was done. Student’s t-test was used for comparison between the groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant at p value less than 0.05.

Findings: There was a significant difference between control group and test group in terms of fibroblast proliferation (p=0.0019) and bony trabeculae formation (p=0.0003). Inflammatory cells were also observed in both groups and it was not significant (p=1.0). Overlying epithelium was hyperplastic in both the groups.

Conclusion & Significance: The study showed that local application of honey promoted the rapid healing process particularly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and bony trabeculae.

Biography:

Abstract:

Korean red ginseng is a pharmacological plant that is traditionally used to improve the body’s immune functions and ameliorate the symptoms of various diseases. However, the splenocyte activity of Korean red ginseng and its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, in vitro and in vivo immune cell activities of Korean red ginseng were explored. Also, Korean red ginseng was assessed for its efficacy to act as an adjuvant for the immune response of splenocytes. The porcines were treated with different concentrations of Korean red ginseng, orally for 4 weeks. The splenocytes isolated from Korean red ginseng-treated group showed enhanced immune cell-activities in a dose dependent manner when compared to untreated group. Further, the intracellular levels of perforin and NKp46 were found to be significantly increased in translational level as revealed by western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, we compared the cytotoxic activity of Korean red ginseng-treated splenocytes against target cell such as K-562 cell for 4 weeks. The Korean red ginseng-treated splenocytes were incubated with K-562 in a ratio of dose-dependent manner for 4 hours. Korean red ginseng-treated splenocytes showed a significantly increased cytotoxicity in dose-dependent manner. In other hand, Korean red ginseng-untreated splenocytes showed a less immune cell activity. Finally, Korean red ginseng exhibited in vivo immune activities in the animal model by increasing the intracellular levels of perforin and NKp46 without changing the animal body weight. These results suggest that Korean red ginseng is capable of tumor cell suppression via different molecular and cellular mechanisms, including induction of activation of immune cells.

Biography:

Abstract:

Cancer has been viewed as a disease consisting of transformed cells, of hyper proliferative, invasive and immortal nature. Accordingly, the anti-cancer strategies are also focused on tumor cells only. In the present study, the gastric cancer cell (SNU-484) soluble compounds have been evaluated for its immunosuppression properties. The proteins present in the SNU-484 soluble compounds (SC) were identified with human cytokine array. The effect of SC on rat splenocytes has been studied with special emphasis on NK cell activity. In results, the addition of various concentration of SC did not show any significant apoptotic or proliferation changes when compared to untreated control splenocytes. Further the incubation of splenocytes with SC reduced the expression of NK cell markers at the transcription level. The same scenario was observed with the in vivo study following 2 days of treatment. Incubation of splenocytes with SC for a longer period reduced the cytotoxic ability, further this observation was strengthened by the reduction of CD161+CD3-(NK) cells in SC treatment. In addition tests were performed to check whether SC can influence tumor formation in allogenic tumor model. The B16F10 melanoma cells-injected animals developed tumor in 3 weeks, whilst the SC injected animals along B16F10 cells aggravates tumor formation, by increasing the PI3K/AKT levels. These findings clearly demonstrate that the presence of SC can modulate immune system response that favors the tumor formation.

Speaker
Biography:

Jing Qi is a doctoral student of Veterinary Pathology in Chonbuk National University of South Korea, and has got her master's degree of Veterinary Medicine in China in June 2016. She is mainly researching on hepatotoxicity induced by medicine or metabolism in the mouse model.

Abstract:

Nicotine, a major constituent of cigarette smoke, is a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants. Acute liver failure (ALF), known as a rapid and severe clinical syndrome, can induce multiple organ dysfunction and failure. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nicotine on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Autoimmune hepatitis was induced by the intravenous administration of Con A (15 mg/kg) to healthy BALB/c male mice, and nicotine (0.5mg/kg and 1mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected before the challenge with Con A. Eight hours later the mice were euthanized and blood and tissues were collected for analysis. The present study showed that nicotine pretreatment significantly decreased the elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and ameliorated hepatic pathological damage and necrosis. In addition, nicotine treatment markedly suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-4. Furthermore, nicotine down-regulated the activation of NF-kB signal in Con A-treated mouse livers. Since Kupffer cells have been known as a crucial component in the initial part of pathogenesis of ALF, our present study confirmed that depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate abolished the protective effects of nicotine against ConA-induced hepatitis, as shown by the similar levels of serum aminotransferase levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines with or without nicotine treatment in Con A-treated mouse livers. In the primary Kupffer cells, nicotine ameliorated inflammatory cytokines and regulated the expression of NF-kB signal. Consistent with the above findings, this study suggested that nicotine could attenuate Con A-induced autoimmune hepatitis and possible mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of Kupffer cells activation through NF-kB signal pathway.

Speaker
Biography:

Min ju Kim is studying at regenerative medicine laboratory in Ajou University. Her main research interests are drug delivery system. Drug delivery systems are systems that synthesize and develop naturally derived biomaterials as well as biocompatible synthetic materials. It is also a system in which drugs, cells or bio-active molecules can efficiently reach target tissues and organs. She is convinced that the drug delivery system is an essential and indispensable technology in the field of regenerative medicine.

Abstract:

Currently, various wound healing agents are being developed. The patch-type therapeutic agent for skin wound healing has almost no side effects and the drug is delivered to the body at a constant rate, it is a new concept drug treatment that can be applied directly. Most of the conventional patch type therapeutic agents have limitations in that the drug is not well controlled due to the structure of the film, so that the drug is not smoothly absorbed into the skin, and the secondary infection is a concern due to poor ventilation and sterilization. In this work, nanofiber sheets (NS) as patch-type therapeutic agent using small intestinal submucosa (SIS) prepared by electrospinning. Nanofibers have a large surface area and high porosity. The large surface area not only sufficiently constitutes the wet state but also has a three-dimensional structure similar to the extracellular matrix structure (ECM), so that drug release is facilitated at the wound site and effective for skin regeneration. Also, SIS, a natural material, has excellent biocompatibility and is an ECM with signaling bio-active molecules, cytokines and many other factors, so it has the advantage of controlling cell function. In this experiment, the nanofiber morphology of the SIS-NS was evaluated by SEM. The absorbability of SIS-NS was evaluated by contact angle test. The cytotoxicity of SIS-NS was evaluated and the wound healing effect was confirmed in vitro. Also, the skin wound healing effects of SIS-NS was evaluated by in vivo experiments such as incision and staining for 3 weeks. In conclusion, these results indicate that SIS-NS is effective for skin wound healing and SIS-NS can be applied as a therapeutic agent for various types of skin wound healing effects. Nanofibers have a large surface area and high porosity. The large surface area not only sufficiently constitutes the wet state but also has a three-dimensional structure similar to the extracellular matrix structure (ECM), so that drug release is facilitated at the wound site and effective for skin regeneration. Also, SIS, a natural material, has excellent biocompatibility and is an ECM with signaling bio-active molecules, cytokines and many other factors, so it has the advantage of controlling cell function. In this experiment, the nanofiber morphology of the SIS-NS was evaluated by SEM. The absorbability of SIS-NS was evaluated by contact angle test. The cytotoxicity of SIS-NS was evaluated and the wound healing effect was confirmed in vitro. Also, the skin wound healing effects of SIS-NS was evaluated by in vivo experiments such as incision and staining for 3 weeks. In conclusion, these results indicate that SIS-NS is effective for skin wound healing and SIS-NS can be applied as a therapeutic agent for various types of skin wound healing effects.

Speaker
Biography:

Jiyoung Seo majored in Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology at Ajou University and obtained a bachelor of science(BS) in engineering in 2017. She entered the graduate school of Molecular Science and Technology at Ajou University. She was selected as the research director of the program sponsored by the Ministry of Science and ICT, and Korea Research Foundation. In the program, she studied the delivery of rheumatoid arthritis medications. She is currently pursuing a master's degree in the Ajou University Regenerative medicine laboratory.

Abstract:

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis-related diseases show an increasing trend. Although many drugs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been appeared in the market, the drugs have some disadvantages; short half-life in vivo, inconvenience of taking drugs for a long period of time, and drug toxicity in oral administration. Thus, a study of formulations that can continuously release the drug is being required. Recently, injectable drug carriers into the joints as a treatment for RA has been suggested as a very effective treatment. Therefore, in this study, we have developed the effective drug carrier via hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a high bioavailability, for RA treatment.

The cross-linking agent was introduced into HA having a molecular weight of 1,000,000 to improve the physical properties of the HA hydrogel and control the pore size of each HA hydrogel for continuous drug release. We also investigated cell viability and inflammation test by using alamar blue assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) about RAW264.7 cells and SW 982 cells. By near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, we confirmed the local release of NIR from the depot injected into the articular joint over an extended period. The effect of HA hydrogel as a RA drug delivery depot was evaluated in vivo experiments through extraction and staining over 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks.

Collectively, these results indicated that the drug depot formed after intra-articular injection of methotrexate-loaded-crosslinked HA hydrogel induced long-lasting drug release and allowed to result in enhanced RA repair.

Speaker
Biography:

Byung-Mu Lee has his expertise in development of anti-aging and anti-inflammation agents. He is also interested in chemoprevention and risk assessment. He is Associate Editor of the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A, Food and Chemical Toxicology, and Editorial review board of Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP), and Advisory Editor of Archives of Toxicology. He was the president of the 13th International Congress of Toxicology (ICT XIII) in 2013. He was the vice president of International Association of Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society (IAEMGS). He was the vice president of the Asia Society of Toxicology (ASIATOX).

Abstract:

Among many environmental factors, solar ultraviolet irradiation is considered the main cause of skin aging in humans. In this study, the protective effect of ammonium glycyrrhizate (AG), an active component of Licorice root, on UVA- and UVB-induced phototoxicity was investigated. The antioxidant phytochemical AG has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and soothing effects on sensitive skin. Despite the known therapeutic effect of AG, the molecular mechanisms related to the photoprotection of AG against UV-induced oxidative cell damage has not yet been determined. In UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes, AG inhibited both oxidative stress and the apoptosis signaling pathway. In addition, AG promoted the activities of the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase 1/2 (Gpx1/2), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) by translocating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) in the nucleus. In UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts, AG suppressed the expression of secreted matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -9 by inhibiting the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Furthermore, AG remarkably increased the synthesis of pro-collagen in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). These results suggest that AG has protective effects against UVA- and UVB-induced photoaging and should be considered a potential therapeutic agent against phototoxicity in skin.

Speaker
Biography:

He works in the activity of medicines controlled internationally as a drug. He has conducted research related to drug poisonings. He works in the Cuban Biopharmaceutical industry.

Abstract:

Reports made by the World Health Organization (WHO), indicate that 12% of the global burden of diseases is due to mental and behavioral disorders and that only a minority of those affected even in the developed world receive treatment basic, adequate and prescribed by a doctor. The misuse and abuse of psychotropic drugs can lead to serious health problems, not only by altering brain activity, but also by being responsible for drug dependence, with its consequent somatic, psychic and social reactions. The problem of the inadequate use of psychotropic drugs is currently associated with an increase in intoxications and addictions.

A retrospective descriptive study was carried out, using as sample the cases of intoxicated by psychopharmacs reported to CENATOX through the telephone information service of Urgency, in the years 2013-2017, the reports of intoxication reports by psychopharmaceuticals were reviewed during the years of study with a work universe of 8448 cases intoxicated by drugs, of which 3988 intoxicated by psychotropic drugs, took into account month and year of occurrence, sex and age group of all patients intoxicated by psychotropic drugs. The circumstances of the intoxication were studied and a nominal dichotomous scale was established in intentional and accidental.

Conclusions:
Psychotropic drugs generate 48.44% of drug intoxications. The female sex of 13-19 years was the most affected by acute poisonings by consumption of psychotropic drugs and the male sex between 15-25 years, was the most affected by addictive behaviors. The polydrug use of psychotropic drugs was the cause of higher incidence, followed by the consumption of Carbamazepine in the ages comprised between 13-19 years. The most commonly used drugs were anxiolytics, in particular Chlorodiazephoxide and Diazepam.
 

Hanayuki Okura

National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Japan

Title: Bridging the MOA and the POC for clinical application–in a case study
Speaker
Biography:

Hanayuki Okura has completed her PhD degree at the age of 34 fears from Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine. She was Research Fellowship for Young Scientists of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science in her graduate school student years. She is now the deputy director of Center for Rare Diseases Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Japan. She will become a professor at Fujita Health University, Aichi, Japan in April 2018.

Abstract:

Once the manufactured cells were assigned for cell-based medicinal products, non-clinical studies shall be conducted. In the constructed non-clinical study package including in vitro and/or in vivo studies, 1) the mode of action (MOA) should be shown, 2) the proof of concept (POC) be acquired, and 3) safety of the candidates be examined. In this presentation, we will focused on MOA and POC, and bridge these two concepts, in which adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) would be developed as cell-based medicinal products for liver fibrosis. To treat the patients with the liver cirrhosis, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology should be concerned to the MOA. Liver fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix with inflammatory status in situ, therefore, in the developing cell-based medicinal products, anti-inflammatory cytokines and fibrinolytic enzyme secretion is anticipated as MOA. After showing the appropriate MOA, the MOA and the POC should be bridges, and the key issues are what kind of animal models should be selected. In the case of the developing cell-based products, MOA is that the cells act as vehicle for the delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs. Tetra carbon chloride (CCl4)-chronic induction evolved radicals, followed by inflammation, resulted in fibrosis of the parenchyma. So, the expected mode could be applicable in this animal models. To acquire the POC after bridging to MOA, the appropriate route of administration (ROA) should be concerned. In the case study, the POC of the developing cell-based products by the improvement of liver fibrosis and function by systemic administration of ADMPC. In conclusion, 1) MOA should be planned from the pathophysiology of the target diseases, 2) the POC-study should be designed to bridge to the MOA, and 3) the applicable limitation should be concerned in clinical use for the patients of the disease